The parallel lawsuits by the District of Columbia, Texas, Indiana and Washington state zero in on Google’s collection of location data, which can be used to target advertising and build profiles on internet users.
According to the complaint, Google also allegedly tried to circumvent users’ expressed preferences with workarounds, such as using IP addresses to determine a user’s location or collecting location data via Google’s apps installed on mobile devices. The allegedly illegal behavior affects virtually all mobile users who interact with Google, according to the complaint, whether they own an Android device, an iPhone, a PC or a tablet.
To facilitate its data collection, Google allegedly relied on “dark patterns” — subtle design choices intended to guide users toward adopting behavior favorable to Google.
“Google makes extensive use of dark patterns,” the complaint reads, “including repeated nudging, misleading pressure tactics, and evasive and deceptive descriptions of location features and settings, to cause users to provide more and more location data (inadvertently or out of frustration).”
In a statement Monday, Google spokesman José Castañeda said the lawsuits were based on “inaccurate claims and outdated assertions about our settings.”
“We have always built privacy features into our products and provided robust controls for location data,” Castañeda said. “We will vigorously defend ourselves and set the record straight.”
In 2019, Google launched a feature that would, if enabled, automatically delete account activity data after a certain period of time. The following year, Google said it would expand that feature by enabling it by default for all new accounts created on its platform. Monday’s lawsuits, however, target Google conduct that predates those changes.
Earlier this year, a state judge in Arizona declined to issue summary judgement in a similar case brought by Arizona officials against Google, saying that it was not an “obvious and straightforward” conclusion that Google misled or deceived consumers.
The lawsuit seeks an injunction blocking Google’s allegedly illegal conduct and disgorgement of profits linked to the allegedly misleading practices.